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Opera Releases ‘Web 3-Ready’ Android Browser With Ethereum, DApp Support

Opera has launched its “Web 3-ready” browser for Android, with crypto wallet integration, support for Ethereum and interactions with decentralized applications.

Opera has launched its “Web 3-ready” browser for Android, with crypto wallet integration, support for Ethereum (ETH) and interactions with decentralized applications (DApps). The launch was announced at the Hard Fork Decentralized event in London Dec. 13, according to a press release shared with Cointelegraph.

Charles Hamel, product manager of Opera Crypto, has outlined that the new product aims to remove the “friction” involved in “using cryptocurrencies online and accessing Web 3 via special apps or extensions,” in a bid to make the emerging technologies more “mainstream.”  

Hamel explained Opera’s choice to support Ethereum and the Ethereum Web3 API as being based on the perception that the protocol “has the largest community of developers building Dapps” and significant “momentum behind it.”

Krystian Kolondra, executive vice president for Browsers at Opera, has said the move is a bid to “accelerate the transition of cryptocurrencies from speculation and investment to being used for actual payments and transactions in our users’ daily lives,” with Hamel adding that:

“[Opera] believe[s] all browsers will eventually integrate some kind of wallet, which will enable new business models to emerge on the web.”

Opera first announced it would be integrating a built-in crypto wallet for its desktop browser in early August, after launching a mobile crypto wallet as part of its beta Opera for Android in July. In September, the firm released an interoperable “Labs” beta version for Android with integrated wallet, Web 3.0 and DApp functionality.

“Web 3.0” is a term that was initially coined to refer to the ambition for the development of a semantic internet, and is increasingly used to refer to the evolution of a more intelligent, open and distributed internet, which could involve the use of blockchain, decentralized computing and cryptocurrencies.

As previously reported, Opera partnered with blockchain advisory and financial services firm Ledger Capital this September to explore possible blockchain applications across its products and ecosystem.

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EOS DApps Lose Almost $1 Million to Hackers Over the Last Five Months

Decentralized apps on the EOS blockchain have reportedly seen 27 hacks from July till late November, losing up to 400,000 EOS.

Decentralized apps (DApps) based on the EOS blockchain have lost up to $1 million to hacks since July, Chinese crypto media Blockchain Truth reports Tuesday, Dec. 4.

The report cites data by PeckShield, a blockchain security company that monitors different ecosystems. According to the report, the DApps on EOS have seen 27 breaches from July to late November, losing up to 400,000 EOS, or 8 million yuan. As of press time, the amount hacked was worth $800,000 according to the EOS price chart on CoinMarketCap.

Nonetheless, Guo Yonggang, an expert cited by Blockchain Truth, believes that most of the attacks on EOS DApps correlate with their vulnerabilities rather than with a bug in EOS itself. Yonggang also tends to think that similar attacks will become more frequent, as hackers are intensively seeking exposures in applications.

Moreover, the report states that the EOS blockchain has a significant amount of dormant accounts — around 200,000 of 500,000 in total. In addition, nearly 120,000 accounts are reportedly managed by groups, which means that 37 percent of the EOS blockchain is real active users.

As of press time, EOS’s price hovered around $2. Its total market capitalization is up to around $1.8 billion, which makes EOS the seventh largest cryptocurrency by market cap.

Last week, United States -based cryptocurrency exchange Coinbase announced it was exploring the option to list over 30 more cryptocurrencies, including major players such as Ripple (XRP), EOS and Cardano (ADA). However, the exchange noticed it would likely be a long-term process, and some assets might not be available in several countries.

As Cointelegraph reported in early December, the month has started with yet another debate around the EOS ecosystem, as Starteos — one of the official sanctioned nodes which can approve EOS transactions — appeared to publically offer its token holders financial rewards in return for their votes.

EOS had previously come under criticism for a lack of decentralization after some confirmed transactions allegedly from a phishe account were reversed this fall.

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Lenovo Partners With Blockchain Platform to Develop Its IoT and AR/VR Hybrid Software

Lenovo intends to incorporate a blockchain solution to streamline internal operations management procedures.

On Sept. 4, the Credits platform, which specializes in providing a range of services for launching DApps, announced in a Medium post that it joined Lenovo’s New Vision Technology project.

Together, the companies will work on developing an Internet of Things (IoT) and AR/VR hybrid software. The software is planned to be implemented in a variety of industries, such as fintech and logistics, reads the announcement. 

Lenovo New Vision Technology

As the official press release says, Credits “will utilize their blockchain expertise to help facilitate building software” for Lenovo’s New Vision Technology project.

The Lenovo project is focused in the field of artificial intelligence (AI)/augmented reality (AR) and is aimed at providing professional industry solutions for partners in terms of infrastructure, platform development, hardware support, system integration and service assurance.

“The Internet of Things and augmented reality are already changing the way we interact with the world. We are excited to partner with AR titan Lenovo New Vision. I see the combination of AI/AR and IoT revolutionizing the business environment,” Credits CEO & founder Igor Chugunov said in the press release.

Lenovo New Vision Technology intends to incorporate Credits’ blockchain solution to streamline internal operations and management procedures.

“Credits [has] been chosen by Lenovo New Vision Technology thanks to its distinctive technical solutions, such as [a] unique consensus algorithm which consists of dPoS (delegated-proof-of-stake) and BFT (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) features,” says the press release.

The blockchain platform that Credits has built is capable of performing up to one million transactions per second, it offers a processing speed of 0.01 seconds, combined with commission rates of as low as $0.001. The extended functionality of Credits’ smart contracts makes it possible to set cycles and create schedules.

A service in high demand

Credits is an autonomous blockchain platform based on the principles of a peer-to-peer network. The platform specializes in a variety of services that are needed for startups to release their DApps. 

The company’s website states that its “the fastest and most scalable blockchain platform for DApps.” Credits provides its partners with smart contracts, public register and ledger, proof-of-concept and MVP development. The company also provides its blockchain expertise on application development.

The company uses a decentralized system for direct interaction of its members. The system incorporates users of the network, providing them opportunities for creating and using financial services. Every member of the blockchain is able to offer and to use different services. Credits tokens (CS) are used for the operations, states the website.

Today, the list of the Credits’ partners counts over one hundred startups that have implemented the Credits platform to develop their DApp services based on the blockchain system.

 

Disclaimer. Cointelegraph does not endorse any content or product on this page. While we aim at providing you all important information that we could obtain, readers should do their own research before taking any actions related to the company and carry full responsibility for their decisions, nor this article can be considered as an investment advice.

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Intel, Software Multinational SAP Partner on Enterprise Blockchain Development Initiative

Intel and software multinational company SAP have announced that they are joining forces to address “gaps in the market” for solutions that power enterprise blockchain systems, according to an official Intel post September 4.

Intel and SAP write that their 25-year collaboration on enterprise infrastructure platforms has recently expanded to encompass blockchain technologies, spearheaded by the creation of a SAP-led global industry blockchain consortium.

The post outlines both companies’ blockchain initiatives to date, some of which aim to make the technology interoperable with the SAP HANA Data Management System, on which both companies have worked together closely to develop.

The SAP HANA Blockchain adapter reportedly integrates with SAP’s recently launched Cloud Platform Blockchain and enables SAP customers to “consume and build on blockchain data in SAP HANA using a SQL interface and standard SQL commands — both on-premise or in the cloud.”

SAP has also launched a Blockchain-as-a-Service (BaaS) on the SAP Cloud Platform Blockchain, which allows customers to integrate enterprise and blockchain data using a pay-as-you-go model.

Intel, for its part, highlights its processor technology that it says can offer the capacity and speed to serve as the foundation for a range of blockchain applications. It further claims in the post that its Intel Software Guard Extensions (Intel SGX) can enhance security for blockchain source code and data and help “improve throughput and consensus efficiency.”

The post outlines SAP and Intel’s collaboration with other parties — including UPS, Flex, and HPE — to create a blockchain-based supply chain management proof-of-concept solution, dubbed International Trade.

Other SAP and Intel blockchain-related efforts include studies that analyze blockchain metrics in order to tackle network bottlenecks that can lead to slow throughput issues. Both companies are further addressing specific hardware configurations in an attempt to define parameters to create “technical standards for individual blockchain use cases,” the post notes.

As Cointelegraph has reported, Intel has this summer been focusing on privacy research in a partnership with decentralized application (DApp) platform Enigma, as the latter prepares to launch its blockchain testnet. Intel also has a range of blockchain-related partnerships spanning multiple industries, including healthcare, and has also collaborated with virtual currency hardware firm Ledger.

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Why Japan’s Biggest Messaging App Line Decided to Create Its Own Crypto

On Aug. 31, Line, Japan’s most widely utilized messaging app with more than 200 million active users, revealed the launch of its own cryptocurrency called LINK.

Upon its announcement, Line immediately listed LINK on its digital asset exchange BitBox, which it launched back in July of this year.

Uniquely, as Cointelegraph reported, Line has decided not to conduct an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) to raise a significant amount of capital in exchange for the distribution of its token. Instead, Line utilized a mechanism called ‘airdrop’ to give users LINK as compensation for utilizing products within the Line ecosystem.

Essentially, LINK is a token that is designed to increase the adoption of decentralized applications (DApps) deployed by the Line development team by incentivizing users accordingly based on their activity on the Link blockchain network.

In the near future, the Line team revealed that it will release DApps and services related to content, commerce, social, gaming and exchange — all of which will rely on LINK as the main payment method.

In concept, Link is similar to EOS, ADA and Ethereum in the sense that it powers DApps and a wide range of services offered by its network of blockchain platforms.

Line’s story

In 2011, Japan was hit with the fourth deadliest earthquake in history. The Tōhoku earthquake, with a recorded 9.1 magnitude, led to more than 20,000 deaths. The Japanese economy was hugely affected by the 30-foot tsunami that triggered a nuclear meltdown of the Fukushima Daichi plant.

At the time, NHN Japan, a subsidiary of South Korea’s search engine operator Naver, envisioned the deployment of a messaging network that was independent of the cellular network so that families and friends could communicate in periods of crisis.

Line was launched in June of 2011, three months after the earthquake, garnering 50 million users within a 12-month period. It is said that Line surpassed Facebook in growth rate, as Facebook needed three years to secure 58 million users.

Since 2011, Line has continued to lead initiatives to assist families and households affected by natural disasters. In late 2013, Line utilized its revenues generated from stickers and emoticon sales to donate $500,000 for hurricane relief in the Philippines.

NUMBER OF MONTHLY ACTIVE LINE USERS

Line’s initial interest in crypto and blockchain

The Japanese messaging giant initially disclosed its intent to focus a large portion of its resources and developer capacity to blockchain development on April 20, 2018, at the 2018 Dev Week conference held in Seoul, South Korea.

At the time, Line chief technology officer Euivin Park discussed the future of IT in front of the company’s 1,000 developers and engineers, as well as the long-term development roadmap of Line that will allow the messaging app to evolve into an all-in-one communications platform.”

During the conference, Park placed heavy emphasis on blockchain technology, stating that the Line umbrella will continue to accelerate the process of creating a blockchain-based tokenized economy that operates on top of a Line-specific blockchain mainnet.

“But Line also will go even further, with plans to support accelerating the development of DApp services outside of the Line platform and develop its own blockchain mainnet in the near future. To achieve this, Line is actively setting up developer bases and speeding up talent acquisition in other regions, as well as adding to Unblock and Blockchain Lab in Korea and Japan.”

While Line has been based in Japan throughout the entirety of its existence, its parent company is Naver — South Korea’s largest search engine. Due to its connections with Naver and South Korea-based internet companies, Park disclosed that two blockchain labs will be set up in South Korea and Japan, with the intent of collaborating with local blockchain projects in the two countries in order to speed up the deployment of a stable blockchain mainnet.

Strategic partnership with Korea’s largest blockchain network to deploy DApps

Naturally, the establishment of Line’s first blockchain lab in Seoul led to the conglomerate cooperating with several blockchain projects created by entrepreneurs and developers based in South Korea. In May, Line officially secured a strategic partnership with ICON, the largest blockchain project in the country (based on market valuation), creating a joint venture called Unchain to develop DApps based on the Link blockchain network.

In May, through an official announcement, the ICON team stated that it had formed a joint initiative with Line due to the shared vision between the two projects in creating a transparent and secure, tokenized economy that incentivizes users based on their contribution to the ecosystem.

The ICON team further emphasized that to streamline the process of DApp adoption, a large network and ecosystem of users is necessary. Considering the 200 million active user base of Line, the ICON development team said that the integration of a blockchain by the Line ecosystem would result in a wider and faster blockchain adoption:

“Unchain will create a blockchain ecosystem fueled by a token economy, where the users are rewarded for their contributions to the network. DApp services discovered through ICON and Unblock, a subsidiary of Line dedicated to blockchain research and to accelerate DApp projects, will be integrated with Unchain.”

In an interview with local publications, Unchain CEO Lee Hong-kyu stated that Line was interested in the interoperability benefits of the ICON network and the team’s technical capabilities. Similar to most next-generation blockchain networks, the ICON blockchain is designed specifically to support many blockchain networks in a single, unified protocol — a structure that is similar to Ethereum’s Plasma scaling solution in the way that many blockchain networks rely on each other to process information in a more efficient manner.

The partnership with ICON allowed Line to speed up the process of DApp deployment and, eventually, the creation of its own cryptocurrency, as the conglomerate garnered all of the technologies and development teams required to sustain a blockchain network.

But, as Line CTO Park said in April, the establishment of the Line blockchain mainnet is only the first step toward the actual initiative of the messaging giant, which is to create a tokenized economy — wherein users are compensated for all sorts of contributions, like content creation, social media presence, digital asset exchange and gaming.

In the years to come, the Line developer community will have to actively develop DApps and various blockchain solutions to ensure that its ecosystem can remain sufficient for hundreds of millions of global users.

Viability and practicality of Line’s independent cryptocurrency

A small portion of the cryptocurrency community questioned the viability and necessity of LINK, the native cryptocurrency of the Link blockchain network, at this stage of development.

In its official announcement, Line CEO Takeshi Idezawa disclosed the intent of the company to create an ecosystem of DApps that will be easy to utilize on a daily basis but did not offer a specific use case of Link, at least in the short-term:

“Over the last seven years, Line was able to grow into a global service because of our users, and now with Link, we wanted to build a user-friendly reward system that gives back to our users. With Link, we would like to continue developing as a user participation-based platform, one that rewards and shares added value through the introduction of easy-to-use DApps for people’s daily lives.”

According to The Verge, in the months to come, users will be able to use LINK to purchase stickers and webtoons on the platform, before the primary use case of the token shifts to become the main incentivization and transaction method of the Line ecosystem.

Image Caption: Physical store of Line characters and stickers in Seoul, Photograph taken by Line Friends, official merchandise distributor of Line

Unlike open-source apps — like Telegram, Line, KakaoTalk and others — for-profit messaging apps have built-in marketplaces that sell stickers, emojis and themes to users. In the foreseeable future, Line expects LINK to be used for small purchases — like the aforementioned items — and, as its DApp and blockchain ecosystem grows, LINK is expected to have a more profound impact on Line.

Line could have utilized existing cryptocurrencies — such as Ether, EOS or Cardano’s ADA — as the primary method of incentivization. But, the Line team explained that the long-term strategy of the company has been to create a blockchain network built from scratch that is specifically designed and structured to facilitate DApps applied to the Line messaging platform.

Based on its partnership with ICON and its decision to create its own blockchain network, it is likely that the core infrastructure of the Link blockchain network will evolve around scalability and multi-chain protocol.

A highly scalable, multi-chain protocol would allow the Link mainnet to process more transactions than other public blockchain networks, similar to VeChain and WaltonChain — two Internet of Things (IoT) blockchain protocols that have implemented their own unique consensus algorithms to maximize the transaction capacity of their blockchains.

Facebook’s potential blockchain launch rumors, stance of WeChat

In May, around the same period in which Line started to explore the blockchain sector, sources close to Facebook revealed the social media conglomerate has been considering the launch of its own cryptocurrency that could be utilized by billions of its users worldwide.

However, speaking to Cheddar, David Marcus — the former vice president of Facebook Messenger who was asked to lead a team of 12 developers in a division focusing on blockchain development — said that Facebook is looking into ways that can leverage the potential of the blockchain.

“Like many other companies, Facebook is exploring ways to leverage the power of blockchain technology. This new, small team will be exploring many different applications. We don’t have anything further to share,” Marcus said, adding that payments in crypto are expensive due to scaling issues and that the company will only consider adding cryptocurrencies onto its platform once it is cheap and efficient to send digital transactions:

“Payments using crypto right now [are] just very expensive [and] super slow. So, the various communities running the different blockchains and the different assets need to fix all the issues, and then, when we get there someday, maybe we’ll do something.”

While the stance of Facebook and Marcus on cryptocurrency integration was made clear through his interview, rumors around a potential cryptocurrency launch by Facebook intensified when Marcus left the board of Coinbase, the world’s largest cryptocurrency brokerage and wallet.

Last month, Coinbase stated that Marcus had left the company’s board to avoid the appearance of a conflict of interest and, in a statement provided to Business Insider, Marcus said that the establishment of the 12-developer blockchain team at Facebook led him to resign from his position as a board member.

In the past several months, almost every major messaging application, from Line to Facebook, disclosed their interest in utilizing blockchains or integrating cryptocurrencies to their platforms, apart from one messaging platform: WeChat.

As China’s most frequently utilized messaging app, with nearly a billion users — fivefold the active user base of Line — WeChat has not shown any interest in integrating cryptocurrency or leveraging the blockchain to improve the usability of its platform, primarily due to the Chinese government’s encouragement to ban everything related to cryptocurrencies.

More than that, as Cointelegraph reported last week, WeChat has cracked down on cryptocurrency businesses and publications on its platform, permanently suspending the accounts owned by major cryptocurrency-related ventures that utilize WeChat to spread information about the cryptocurrency sector.

ICO regulation in Japan and South Korea

Kakao, the largest internet conglomerate in South Korea — which operates KakaoPay, KakaoTaxi, KakaoStory, KakaoStock and KakaoTalk, all under the Kakao banner — with nearly 90 percent dominance in every sector it operates in, also announced its plans to release a cryptocurrency earlier this year.

But, the initiative of Kakao was shut down by the Financial Services Commission (FSC), which publicly stated that Kakao is not permitted to conduct a token sale inside or outside of South Korea:

“Even if there is no prohibition on cryptocurrency or digital asset trading, there is a possibility that it [Kakao ICO] may be regarded as fraud or multi-level sales according to the issuance method. Since the risk is very high in terms of investor protection, the government has a negative stance on the ICO.”

Since then, regulatory frameworks around ICOs and cryptocurrency trading in both Japan and South Korea have significantly improved, and the positive change in cryptocurrency regulation may have contributed to the early launch of Line’s native cryptocurrency, LINK.

It is possible that, as regional governments — like South Korea’s Jeju Island — enable ICOs and token sales, Kakao will pursue its previous plan of a token sale and a cryptocurrency launch, directly competing against Line and Naver, the messaging app’s parent corporation.

The active blockchain development division in Facebook led by Marcus, who has been involved in the cryptocurrency sector for many years, could also lead to Facebook, Kakao or others exploring the potential of leveraging blockchain technology, which may place Line in direct competition with the global market’s largest social media platforms.

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RAM It All: Rising Costs Are Turning EOS Into a Crypto Coder's Nightmare

Compared to ethereum, EOS seems to have scalable dapps figured out.

Users of decentralized applications (dapps) on ethereum frequently chafe at the fact that any action – sending a tweet, playing a card, breeding a cat – costs money in the form of “gas” and takes time, as miners hash out the new state of the chain.

At first glance, EOS suffers from neither of these issues. There is no fee to send tokens or call a dapp smart contract. And in contrast to ethereum, even when the EOS blockchain is processing millions of transactions a day, it runs smoothly.

According to the EOS white paper, these perks are likely to make the system “gain more widespread adoption,” and some dapp developers apparently spot an opportunity.

For instance, Kevin Rose, the co-founder of EOS New York, a block producer, an entity that performs a similar function to miners in other blockchain networks, told CoinDesk:

“I’m having conversations with at least one group a week about, ‘These are the challenges we’re having on so-and-so platform, we want to come onto EOS.'”

Rose mentioned Tixico, which announced that it would transition from ethereum due to EOS’ “better performance and scalability to serve high demand.”

Yet, the grass may not be as green as some dapp developers hope.

That’s because, whereas ethereum dapps can be costly for the ones using them, EOS dapps can be costly for the teams deploying them.

In order to onboard users to an EOS dapp, developers generally have to make sure they’ve secured sufficient amounts of three separate resources: RAM, which amounts to state storage on the blockchain; CPU, which measures average consumption of computing resources in microseconds; and network bandwidth, or NET, which measures average consumption in bytes.

And getting these resources has proved costly.

Yutin Chen, CEO of PandaFun, a game that recently launched on EOS, said the team bought 10,000 EOS worth of RAM or around $65,000 at current EOS prices. The company also staked 10,000 EOS for CPU and 1,000 EOS for NET. Although, Chen made it clear that most of the RAM would go toward an upcoming token sale, saying, “The game doesn’t cost that much.”

By contrast, deploying a smart contract to ethereum only costs a bit of gas, whether it houses functionality for a dapp or a token contract. The cost of deploying the ethereum smart contracts could be $1 or $100, but it’s a far cry from what it would cost on EOS.

Ultimately, that’s not only a problem for the developers, but also EOS users.

For instance, some dapps might begin shifting expenses back onto users, to the extent that’s possible. And others might do what would-be dapps on ethereum are doing, and decide to launch elsewhere.

RAM: Speculators and hackers

Arguably the biggest headache for developers right now is RAM, as the resource has to be bought at a changing market price using EOS, with trades taking place on the Bancor algorithm.

Each dapp user takes 4 kilobytes of RAM to onboard for developers. According to the current RAM price, that’s around $3.12 per user. RAM is necessary for other actions as well, besides just creating an account.

And as such, Rose told CoinDesk:

“We do not understand the total costs of onboarding a dapp user yet. I don’t think that that data […] could give us confidence in an average of sorts.”

Even before the EOS mainnet launched in June, an open issue of GitHub (which has received 60 replies since it was created) argues that the RAM model “simply can’t work if your target is to create tens or hundreds of million user accounts for your dapp!”

And at the time that was written, RAM prices were far cheaper.

Following the launch, however, speculators jumped on the limited available RAM in hopes of selling it later at a profit. This drove prices as high as 0.94 EOS per KB – eight times higher than the current level.

In response to the spiking price, block producers decided to double the total supply of RAM, adding 64 GB over the following year at the rate of 1 KB per block. This move has so far helped to calm the market.

The issue around RAM, though, isn’t just how expensive it is.

It is also vulnerable. In August it emerged that attackers could eat up an account’s RAM, using a notification feature to stuff the target’s available RAM with useless data. Developers can avoid this attack by sending tokens through proxy smart contracts that contain no RAM, but that adds another step developers must take into account.

The issue was serious enough for EOS’ chief architect to weigh in. Dan Larimer, CTO of Block.One, the company that developed the protocol and held the $4 billion EOS ICO, wrote that block producers could free up maliciously consumed RAM by enforcing the principle that “intent of code is law.”

While that rule is contained in Larimer’s proposed revision to the EOS “constitution,” a set of bylaws that network participants are in theory held to, the problem is that the constitution has not been adopted, because the voting system necessary to do so hasn’t been implemented yet.

CPU: WE LOVE BM

EOS’ other two network resources, CPU and NET, haven’t received as much attention, but CPU in particular could squeeze both developers and users.

These resources work differently from RAM. Rather than being bought and sold, they’re obtained through staking, in which a network participant delegates EOS tokens to a particular kind of smart contract.

When the network is not being fully utilized, participants can get an outsized amount of CPU time for a relatively modest stake. In theory, that should mean early adopters don’t need very large stakes for the time being.

After all, according to Dapp Radar, just a handful of EOS dapps have more than 100 daily users, so how strapped for CPU could the network be?

As it turns out, a spammer has stepped in to fill the void. A single account, Blocktwitter, has been “sharing messages comprising of 192 million actions, which is  about 95 percent of all EOS transactions to date,” said Tom Fu, a partner at standby block producer GenerEOS.

Nearly all of them say simply “WE LOVE BM,” a reference to Larimer’s nom-de-net, bytemaster. As Fu put it, the messages are “not important.”

But they’re still having an impact, due to Blocktwittter’s high CPU stake. Users, as well as developers, are seeing their allotted CPU times get squeezed due to all the spamming.

Fu told CoinDesk:

“RAM can be pushed onto users, however, CPU cannot. In this sense whoever executes the action needs to have the CPU staked in their account.”

A recent Reddit post by an EOS Knights player underscores this point. The user wrote that they delegated 10 EOS – $59 worth – to play the game, thinking that would be enough, but actually it wasn’t even close. EOS Knights suggests staking at least 15 EOS ($88) on CPU to play the game, but the Reddit user claimed that even a $500 stake would not meet the recommended required CPU time.

As such, Larimer has proposed a model for renting CPU and NET, which he writes “will lower the cost of using the EOS network.”

Worth it?

Yet, it may be overly simplistic to say that ethereum pushes costs onto users, while EOS pushes costs onto developers.

“There are use cases where a developer can write a dapp where the user has to bring their own CPU and/or [NET] and/or RAM to the interaction,” former Block.One VP of product Thomas Cox said, adding: “that’s one way to write an early version of your dapp that won’t bankrupt you if it suddenly gets popular.”

One thing that is clear is that EOS dapp developers will have to think hard about their business models, perhaps more so than their counterparts on ethereum.

In the final analysis, though, EOS might have its advantages, according to Cox.

For one, whereas a popular dapp like CryptoKitties can clog the entire ethereum network, EOS staking does guarantee a certain minimum access to CPU.

Another potential advantage is that unlike ethereum’s gas, investments in EOS resources can be recouped. Tokens staked on CPU can be unstaked, and RAM can be sold – perhaps at a lower price, though.

Finally, Cox said, ethereum dapp developers are “one bug away from bankruptcy.”

EOS’ arbitration system has been the subject of considerable controversy, but it does provide some recourse and the potential to avoid a DAO- or Parity-type fiasco.

As such, Cox posed, but didn’t answer, the question:

“What’s that worth?”

EOS with skeleton via Shutterstock

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.